What Is HPLC?

What Is High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)?

In order to fully understand High-Performance Liquid Chromatography or HPLC for short, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of Liquid Chromatography.

Liquid Chromatography is a technique often performed in a lab, that is used to separate a mixture in order to measure its components, as well as test for potency of a particular substance. How this process works is somewhat complicated, however, it put it simply, the mixture is first dissolved in a fluid. Once the mixture has been dissolved into liquid form, it becomes mobile, hence this is known as the mobile phase. At this point, the liquid is then transferred through a machine that contains another material, which is used to separate the components of the mixture. As the liquid passes through the separating material different compounds begin to move at different rates. This is what’s known as the stationary phase, as the separating material remains stationary while the liquid mixture passes through it. When the different compounds in the mixture travel through at different speeds it causes them to separate. HPLC is based directly on this technique.

HPLC is different from traditional liquid chromatography because high pressure is required. Ordinary liquid chromatography generally uses gravity to pass the mobile phase through a column in order to separate the mixture. The earliest experiments done in this way date back to the 1900’s. The process is time-consuming, and also limited, due to restrictions in the size of particles that can be used for separation using gravity alone.

It was not until the 1960s, when it was predicted by Cal Giddings, Josef Huber, and others, that LC could be operated in a high-efficiency mode by using pressure to increase velocity in the mobile phase. After extensive experimentation with pressure, High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography or HPLC was born. The name has since been changed to High-Performance Liquid Chromatography due to further technological advances, but the acronym remains the same. Comparatively to LC, HPLC is superior in its ability to separate different compounds in mixtures, which makes it a more powerful technique.

HPLC is currently one of the most popular methods used in analytical chemistry to separate, identify, and measure different compounds present in samples. This technique will work on almost anything, so long as it can be dissolved into a liquid.

In the modern world, the technology has advanced to such a degree, that trace amounts of a compound can be detected in a mixture even as low as parts per trillion (or ppt). Today, HPLC can be applied to just about anything, including food, pharmaceutical drugs, nutraceutical supplements, cosmetic products, forensic samples, and industrial chemicals. HPLC is also used in the manufacturing of certain products, for drug testing purposes, and even in scientific and medical research.

HPLC instruments come in many forms, but generally all include a degasser, sampler, pumps, and a detector. The sampler brings the mixture into the mobile phase stream, which carries it into a column where the stationary phase is located. The pumps then deliver the desired pressure necessary to push the mobile phase through the column. The detector is needed to see the separated compounds as they exit from the column. It then generates a signal that is directly proportional to the amount of mixture emerging from the column, which allows the different compounds in the sample to be measured. Often, a computer is used control the HPLC instrument, and for data analysis of the sample. The data that is generated by the detector is then transferred to the computer which creates a reading. This reading is known as a chromatogram. Many HPLC instruments also have an oven that allows for the adjustment in temperature, if necessary, to perform the separation of certain materials. The choice of which components to use in the mobile phase vary. Additives like salts or acids are sometimes used based on the nature of the sample if it helps to break it down. Often a series of trial runs are performed with a sample in order to find the best HPLC method for separating a particular substance. When all is said and done, the mobile phase exits the detector and is either sent to waste management, or collected as desired.

Obviously, this explanation of HPLC is very basic and further research can be done if one is generally interested in learning more about the various aspects of, and techniques involved with chromatography. There are methods that are even more advanced such as Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography or UHPLC, which has a higher throughput rate as well as faster run times than traditional HPLC. Many laboratories now have a combination of both HPLC and UHPLC systems for their liquid chromatography needs.

Finally, if you are interested in having your product or substance tested using HPLC, we offer this service at Cannabidiol Life. Please click here, or contact us at…CBDPotencyTester.com

Best Way To Extract CBD From Hemp

Best Way To Extract CBD From Hemp

If you are considering to make, take, or buy CBD products, it’s important to take into consideration a huge detail that will directly affect the quality of the Cannabidiol you will obtain. This #1 factor of importance is the extraction method of how the CBD is obtained.
There are indeed three different ways to extract cannabidiol, but we only recommend the two of them.  Continue reading to find out why.

Three Ways To Extract CBD From Cannabis & Hemp Plants

Extraction Using Butane & Propane

This was the first way that farmers, cannabis/hemp growers, and backyard CBD enthusiast’s extracted CBD. It is the easiest way for the average Joe to extract CBD, but as you can imagine, it yields the poorest quality CBD.  This extraction process involves HIGH HEAT and HIGH PRESSURE.  Furthermore, the solvents carry over into the final product. This is a no-no for Cannabidiol Life and it should be the same for each and every one of you.

Extraction Difficulty: EASY
Time Needed To Extract:  3 HOURS PER PLANT
Product Yield: MILD-HIGH

Overall CBD Quality: 2 OUT OF 5 STARS
(Not Recommended)

CBD Extracted by Super Critical CO2

This is the most popular way to obtain CBD right now because there are no additional additives and it literally squeezes out every last drop of Cannabidiol from a hemp plant using 3,000 lbs of pressure. This process is a much faster extraction process and it also allows manufacturers to yield the most product possible from a hemp plant.From a manufacturer standpoint (retailer), this is 100% the way to go.  It is quicker, cheaper, and it creates the most product possible out of the three.From a user/buyer standpoint (you), it is a good option due to the fact that there are not any additives and no extreme heat is applied (which destroys the plant).  The pressure used, on the other hand, does destroy the plant, and as a result, you miss out on some of the health benefits of the hemp plant, but you get most!

Extraction Difficulty: MILD-HARD
Time Needed To Extract:  5 HOURS PER PLANT
Product Yield: HIGH

Overall CBD Quality:
4 OUT OF 5 STARS
( Recommended)

By Hemp “Cradling” in Organic Ethyl Alcohol (ethanol)

This is a much slower process in comparison to the prior two options, but this is undoubtedly the best and purest way to enjoy the full benefits of Cannabidiol and actually, the hemp plant in general (minus the THC).  This process is amazing, which is what sparked this article in the first place.  

This is the “Tiffany & Co.” extraction process and is rarely found from a retailer stand point.This extraction process brings the hemp plant and the organic (food-based) ethyl alcohol to a very low boil. During this low heat boil, the hemp plant is actually cradled back a forth in the kindest way possible, almost like cradling a baby to sleep.  As the plant mixes with the ethanol and as the slow rocking creates natural friction (molecule movement), it will gently produce a vapor that is just full of all the benefits that one could naturally and organically extract from a hemp plant and Cannabidiol.

The care that goes into this extraction process, along with the quality of the product being the #1 goal at hand, is what makes this the absolute best way to produce a health and wellness CBD product.

Extraction Difficulty: HARD 
Time Needed To Extract:  8 HOURS PER PLANT
Product Yield: MILD

Overall CBD Quality: 5 OUT OF 5 STARS! 
HIGHLY RECOMMENDED!

For More Information

Do you have a thirst for more knowledge about CBD?  Visit our three Parent Topic pages, which leads to over 100 pages of valuable, CBD information.

  1. What is CBD?
  2. CBD Products
  3. Health Benefits of CBD

Author
Christopher Visser

Christopher is the Founder of Cannabidiol Life and is an extreme advocate of natural holistic healing.

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Cannabidiol (CBD) has NOT been proven to treat, relieve, nor cure any disease or medical condition listed on this site.  The medical studies, controlled tests, and health information offered by Cannabidiol Life on CBDOilsAndEdibles.com (or any variation of the URL) is an expressed summarization of our personal conducted research and it is strictly to be used as our educated opinion.  The information provided here is designed to support, NEVER replace, legal or medical guidance provided by certified legal officials or licensed medical professionals. Our products are not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18 and our products should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor’s advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product.
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