The Life Span of CBD (Cannabidiol) in the Human System
The Origin of Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol, more commonly known as CBD, is derived directly from the hemp plant. The hemp plant is a strain of cannabis, the same family of plants as marijuana. The two are often confused because of their similarities however, unlike marijuana, CBD derived from hemp has no psychoactive effects that are capable of impairing someone’s reasoning or judgment. After all, no evidence of public health-related problems has been reported to health institutes regarding the use of CBD products.
Currently, CBD is mainly produced in the United States. Although in some areas, state and local governments haven’t fully legalized it, hemp was made legal at the federal level. The Drug Enforcement Administration of the United States has designated Epidiolex, (a CBD based epilepsy medication) as well as CBD in general, as a Schedule V substance. This means CBD is on the same level as cough syrup in terms of its federal legality. However, not all states are compliant with this, and questions about legality have led to controversy and confusion in the minds of some people. Many are asking questions like, “Is CBD safe? If so, why hasn’t it been completely legalized? How long does cannabidiol stay in the system?” etc. As a result, many scientists are currently carrying out a variety of research studies on CBD, in order to best answer these weighty questions.
There are some things we do know for certain however, CBD can be taken in several different ways. These methods include inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, injestion as an aerosol spray into the cheek, or by mouth via food, or in pill form. It can also be processed into and edible CBD oil containing CBD as the main active ingredient. Sometimes these oils may also contain trace amounts of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), however in most areas for this to be legal it must be less than 0.3 percent.
Unlike the very psychoactive cannabinoid THC, CBD does not affect human behavior. It has no noticeable side effects. However, various studies have shown that CBD may interact with biological targets within the body, specifically the cannabinoid and neurotransmitter receptors respectively.
Medical Uses of CBD: Treatment for Epilepsy
There has been some quality research on the use of CBD to counter epilepsy, especially in children. Although there is not much, the available evidence proves that CBD counters refractory epilepsy in children. The result of using medical-grade CBD in combination with conventional medication results in the elimination of seizures with little or no side effects.
Apart from the use of CBD to treat epilepsy, it can also be used in the treatment of neurological disorders, but not enough research has been carried out to establish this as certifiable medical fact.
CBD for Cancer
CBD exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic results in tumor cell lines. There are several mechanisms by which CBD presents these effects, including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and concomitant activation of initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9. In order to investigate the selectivity of CBD’s effects in tumoral and non-tumoral cells, several concentrations of CBD were examined on different stabilized non-tumor cell lines, such as human keratinocyte, rat preadipocytes, and mouse monocyte-macrophages. The results showed that CBD inhibited the growth of further cancer cells.
Safety of CBD for expecting mothers
Analysis of CBD’s influences on embryo development is also essential because it raises the question of whether expecting mothers can take CBD, and consequently, whether it affects fetal development. In vitro results showed that CBD did not significantly alter early development at concentrations of 6.4, 32 and 160 NM.
Effect on Food Intake
One prevalent effect of THC is increased appetite, which is mediated by the CB1 receptor in the brain, and induced by the stimulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. CBD has a low bond for the CB1 receptor, and concentrations of 3 to 100 mg/kg body weight administered intraperitoneal resulted in no significant effects on food intake in mice or rats. However, CBD reduced hyperplasia induced by CB1 and 5-HT1A receptor agonists in rats.
Conversely, chronic usage of CBD for up to 14 days lessened body weight gain in rats at dosages of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg bw. This effect was inhibited by co-administration of a CB2 receptor antagonist. This review was carried using reports recovered from the web. The explored keywords were “cannabinoids,” “cannabidiol,” and “side effects.” No time limits were foisted on the search patterns. We included papers in English, Portuguese, and Spanish languages that detailed research in both humans and animals using CBD alone. The directory of eligible papers was checked for additional relevant studies. Studies describing mixed cannabinoids or CBD extracts were excluded. A total of 132 papers were chosen for the review.
Studies in Humans
In human studies, CBD administration did not induce side effects across a wide range of dosages, including acute and chronic dose regimens, and tolerance to CBD did not develop. Acute studies in the 1970s on humans showed that ill effects did not follow oral CBD consumption from 15 to 160mg, inhalation of 0.15mg/kg bw, or intravenous injection from five to 30mg.
CBD does not interfere with various psychomotor and psychological functions in humans. CBD does not affect heart rate, blood pressure, or performance in the verbal paired-associate learning test as measured at doses of up to 600mg. Subsequent studies concerning the anti-psychotic effects of CBD have not reported any side effects after CBD intake.
Studies also show that chronic oral administration of 10mg CBD daily for 21 days did not induce any changes in neurological, psychiatric, blood or urine examinations.
Likewise, oral CBD administration in healthy participants (3mg/kg bw daily for 30 days) and in epileptic patients (200-300mg daily for 135 days) was well tolerated and no signs of toxicity or serious side effects were detected on neurological and physical examinations, blood and urine analysis, or EKG and EEG, which were performed at weekly intervals.
CBD was evaluated for symptomatic efficacy and safety in 15 neuroleptic-free patients with Huntington’s Disease. Effects after oral CBD (10mg/kg bw /day for six weeks) or placebo (sesame oil for six weeks) intake were evaluated weekly under a double-blind, randomized crossover design.
CBD showed no significant or clinical differences compared to placebo in the Cannabis side effect inventory, clinical lab tests, or other safety outcome variables. Also, weekly plasma levels of CBD (mean range 5.9 to 11.2 ng/ml), assayed by GC/MS, did not differ significantly over the six weeks of CBD administration.
A previous case report of a teenager diagnosed with schizophrenia who experienced severe side effects after treatment with conventional anti-psychotics demonstrated significant improvement of symptoms with no adverse effects after hospitalization and four weeks of treatment with increasing doses of CBD up to 1,500mg/day.
More recently, CBD monotherapy was administered to three patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (initial oral dose of 40 mg, increased to 1,280mg/day) for up to 4 weeks with no side effects reported, even at the highest dose. A similar result was observed in two patients with the bipolar affective disorder who received CBD (600-1,200mg/day).
Effect of Cannabidiol in the Human Immune System
The majority of the available literature shows inhibitory capacities of cannabinoids, including CBD, on cells of the human immune system. CBD strongly inhibited interleukin (IL)-10 production in a virus-negative T-cell line, and increased IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) and MIP-1 production in an eosinophilic leukemia cell line, and inhibited IL-8 production by B-cells.
Since CBD decreased the production of IL-8 and CC chemokines (MIP-1 and MIP-1) by B-cells, a patient’s risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus – 1 (HIV-1) or other infectious organisms may increase, along with a risk of disease progression. Previous reports suggested that IL-10 inhibits HIV-1 expression by infected macrophages.
Therefore, the strong inhibition of IL- 10 productions by CBD could be another mechanism by which this cannabinoid can up-regulate HIV-1 production.
In summary, although these effects are of possible advantage in some conditions, they may worsen disease progression, HIV infection, tumor genesis, and metastases, and worsen allergic inflammation in the lungs. However, some results suggested that CBD could yield a biphasic response in the immune system with stimulatory ability at lower doses (Nanomolar concentrations) and inhibitory activity at higher doses (micromolar levels).
Accordingly, enhancement of mitogen-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and secretion of interferon (IFN) by CBD (10-100ng/ml) and suppression of these activities at higher doses (1-10μg/ml) were observed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
In in vivo evaluations of CBD in humans, significant correlations were found between IFN blood levels, neutering, and the kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio in various diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, (HIV).
Who Discovered CBD?
In the year 1940, at the University of Illinois, a group of scientists led by Dr. Roger Adams discovered CBD for the first time. However, the structure was not fully explained until 1963 by Frederick Sanger. Unlike the THC (Tetrahydro-cannabidiol), CBD does not affect the human brain negatively; it is, therefore, non-psychoactive. The cannabis plant has diverse medicinal functions for treating chronic and non-chronic ailments. This allows us to profit from the many health properties of the cannabis plant without the negative side effects.
CBD is popularly known for its medicinal functions ranging from its positive effect on chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, PTSD, epilepsy, and other mental disorders. Before the involvement of medical researchers, many were skeptical to believe that the cannabis plant could treat such chronic ailments. As medical researchers learned more, they were able to provide answers to the questions on the minds of any people, and prove conclusively that CBD works in the therapeutic aid and treatment of certain ailments.
How Does CBD Work?
CBD is anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiolytic. These properties allow it to prevent stress, anxiety, and also help to relieve pain. The effects of these properties aren’t enough to allow CBD to benefit so many conditions alone however. The interaction of the Cannabinoids found in CBD with the receptors is the leading property that produces positive effects throughout the body. These allow CBD to treat many conditions leading to a stable health condition in humans and animals alike.
How Long Does CBD Stay in the System?
This has remained a mystery to people due to the contradictory research results of various medical researchers in the past. The elaborate research and study of CBD oil use and the sophistication of cannabinoid drug tests in the world today have created confusion in the minds of people, especially the media. They need a piece of tangible, reliable information they can share with the masses. It has been reported continuously that some individuals tested positive for THC metabolites, an unacceptable presence on many drug tests. Supposedly, this was after taking non-psychoactive drugs. How is that even possible? Can that actually happen without really taking THC?
The truth is some CBD oils contain trace amounts of THC because CBD is also a derivative of THC. It is, therefore, possible for CBD to be 100% free from THC and its metabolites, however this depends on how pure the product is. There is a distinction between full-spectrum CBD and CBD Isolate. The CBD isolate is the purified form.
It is therefore important to know how long CBD stays in the system before going for a THC test. The knowledge of this study serves as an advantage in our day to day lives, especially in our places of work. Most companies or institutes conduct various tests before employment. It is therefore important to know how long CBD stays in the body since it may contain trace amounts of THC.
For instance, you have a marijuana test coming up, it is important you know just how long CBD stays in your system in preparation for the test. If you’ve been taking a hundred percent CBD oil, then it’s essential you know how long you have to wait before going for the test. This leads to the actual question of how long do you have to wait before going for a THC test?
In Preparation for a THC Test: How Long Does CBD Stay in the System?
The main objective of this study is to determine how long CBD containing THC stays in the system and treat the situation as if a person had been using actual marijuana. According to the information from a 2014 publication in the scientific journal of Epilepsy Currents. It was discovered that the half-life of CBD is, after a single dose, 24 to 48 hours, or approximately one to two days.
The University of Nottingham School of Health sciences proposed that the half-life of a drug is the period required for the concentration of a drug in the body to be reduced by one-half.
It is estimated by most accounts from various studies that drugs reach their steady state after four to five half-lives. This concept makes it easy for us in terms of calculating how long the drug will take before it becomes undetectable. Without this, the calculation could get very complex when certain variables are taken into consideration, variables like the frequency at which the drugs were taken, age, weight, metabolism, etc.
Another study probed into CBD half-life in terms of how long it remains active in humans. It found the half-life to be between 18 and 33 hours for IV administration, 27 and 35 hours for smoking, and two to five days for oral administration.
With the statistics above, it seems the length of time CBD stays in the body’s system leans more towards the former rather than the latter (in other words, more towards the 4-day mark than the 25-day mark).
After the 6-week period was over, blood plasma CBD levels averaged at just 1.5 ng/ml among the 14 test subjects in the week immediately following the administration of the compound. After this first week, the CBD levels were “implicitly undetectable.”
As such, the study concluded the “elimination half-life” for CBD to be between 2 and five days, with no apparent difference between genders. Apart from the fact that CBD contains a trace amount of THC, various studies have also proven that CBD can be broken down into THC in the stomach.
All in all, if you have a drug test in few days, and you’re bothered because you have taken CBD, this study will give you the knowledge to know what to do about it.